Nobel Prize Day and its Significance
Nobel Prize Day is observed every year on 10 December. It is observed to honours the achievements of Alfred Bernhard Nobel, a Swedish engineer, chemist, entrepreneur, and philanthropist. Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) funded the establishment of the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. That is also name as Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.
The Nobel Prizes, beginning in 1901, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, beginning in 1969, have been awarded 603 times to 962 people and 25 organizations. Four individuals have received more than one Nobel Prize.
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was jointly awarded to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2021 was awarded “for ground-breaking contributions to our understanding of complex systems” with one half jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann “for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming” and the other half to Giorgio Parisi “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021 was awarded jointly to Benjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan “for the development of asymmetric organocatalysis.” Benjamin List and David MacMillan are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021 because in 2000 they, independent of each other, developed a third type of catalysis. It is called asymmetric organocatalysis and builds upon small organic molecules.
The Prize amount of 10 million Swedish kronor.
History of Nobel Prize Day
Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on 21 October 1833. He died on 10 December 1896. The Nobel Prize Day is observed on his death anniversary. The Nobel Prize is awarded each year on December 10.
He was born in poor family. His father, Olaus Rudbeck, was a Swedish scientist. Alfred Nobel was interested in engineering, particularly explosives, learning the basic principles from his father at an early age.
In his last Will and Testament, Nobel established several categories of prizes for accomplishments made for the betterment of humankind. While his heirs contested the will, Nobel’s wishes prevailed, and the first prizes were awarded in 1901. They are international recognition awards. The Nobel Prize Foundation Prize controls the determination of award recipients, and the annual presentation of awards.