14 April: Tribute to Emmy Noether

OV Digital Desk

Image Courtesy: Google Doodle

Emmy Noether (23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935) was a German mathematician who made many important contributions to abstract algebra. She discovered Noether’s First and Second Theorem, which are fundamental in mathematical physics. As one of the leading mathematicians of her time, she developed some theories of rings, fields, and algebras. In physics, Noether’s theorem explains the connection between symmetry and conservation laws.

Life and Career

She was born on 23 March 1882, in Erlangen, Germany. Noether was the daughter of mathematician Max Noether and grew up in a family that valued education and intellectual pursuits. She pursued her own interest in mathematics, studying at the University of Erlangen and later at the University of Göttingen, where she earned her doctorate in 1907.

Despite facing discrimination as a woman in a male-dominated field, Noether continued to pursue her research and became a pioneer in the field of abstract algebra. She is best known for her contributions to the theory of groups, rings, and fields, which revolutionized the study of algebra and had a profound impact on many areas of mathematics and physics.

Noether’s work also played a crucial role in the development of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. She discovered that the laws of physics are invariant under certain transformations, which became known as Noether’s theorem and provided a foundation for modern theories of physics.

Despite her groundbreaking work, Noether faced significant obstacles throughout her career. She was initially denied a teaching position at the University of Göttingen but was eventually appointed as a lecturer and later a professor. She was forced to flee Germany in 1933 due to the rise of the Nazi regime and spent the last years of her life in the United States, where she continued to teach and do research until her untimely death on 14 April 1935 at the age of 53.

Noether’s legacy continues to inspire mathematicians and physicists around the world. Her contributions to the fields of algebra and physics have had a lasting impact, and her advocacy for women in mathematics has helped to pave the way for future generations of female mathematicians.

Award and Legacy

Emmy Noether’s contributions to mathematics and physics were recognized as groundbreaking and influential. Some of the notable awards and honors Noether has received posthumously include:

  • The American Mathematical Society’s Frank Nelson Cole Prize in Algebra in 1938
  • The National Academy of Sciences elected her as their first female member in mathematics in 1931
  • The Association for Women in Mathematics established the Emmy Noether Lectureship in 1980
  • The International Mathematical Union established the Emmy Noether Lecture in 1982

Noether’s legacy in mathematics and physics is immense. Her work on abstract algebra, particularly her development of Noetherian rings and modules, has influenced a wide range of fields in mathematics, including algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and topology. Her discovery of Noether’s theorem has had a profound impact on the understanding of the fundamental laws of physics.

Noether’s advocacy for women in mathematics and science also had a lasting impact. She served as a role model for generations of female mathematicians and helped pave the way for future women in the field. Her life and work continue to inspire and motivate mathematicians and scientists around the world.

On 23 March 2015, Google celebrated Emmy Noether’s 133rd Birthday with a doodle.