Lithuania Act of Independence and its Significance

OV Digital Desk

Image Courtesy: Google Doodle

The Act of Independence of Lithuania, also known as Act of February 16 or Lithuanian Resolution on Independence was signed by the Council of Lithuania on 16 February 1918. The Act declared Lithuania to be an independent democratic republic, with Vilnius as its capital. It also stated that all state power would be vested in the Lithuanian people and that the country would be ruled by a democratically elected government.

The Act was a response to the collapse of the Russian Empire during World War I, which had previously controlled Lithuania. The Council of Lithuania, which was made up of representatives from various Lithuanian political parties and organizations, saw an opportunity to seize independence.

The Act of Independence was immediately recognized by the Western powers, but it was not accepted by Soviet Russia, which invaded Lithuania in 1918 and attempted to annex it. Lithuania managed to maintain its independence until 1940, when it was occupied by the Soviet Union.

However, the Act of Independence remained a powerful symbol of Lithuania’s struggle for freedom, and it played a key role in Lithuania’s re-establishment as an independent state in 1990, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Today, February 16 is celebrated as Lithuania’s National Day.


The Act of Independence of Lithuania, also known as the Act of February 16, 1918, is a highly significant document in the history of Lithuania. Here are some of its key significances:

  • Restoration of Lithuanian independence: The Act of Independence declared the restoration of an independent democratic republic of Lithuania, which had been under foreign rule for over a century. It paved the way for Lithuania to regain its sovereignty and national identity and is regarded as a cornerstone of Lithuanian statehood.
  • National identity: The Act of Independence played a key role in shaping the Lithuanian national identity and the country’s self-image. It symbolized the Lithuanian people’s determination to be free and independent and inspired generations of Lithuanians to fight for their rights and independence.
  • International recognition: The Act of Independence was immediately recognized by many Western powers, including the United States, Great Britain, and France, which provided Lithuania with diplomatic support and legitimacy. This international recognition helped Lithuania establish itself as a sovereign state on the world stage.
  • Democratic ideals: The Act of Independence established a democratic system of government, with power vested in the Lithuanian people and a democratically elected government. It set out the principles of democracy, including human rights, the rule of law, and freedom of speech, which have remained fundamental to Lithuania’s political system to this day.
  • Legacy: The Act of Independence of Lithuania has become a symbol of Lithuanian national identity and resistance against foreign domination. It is celebrated every year as Lithuania’s National Day and continues to inspire Lithuanians to uphold the values of democracy, independence, and freedom.