Remembering Tipu Sultan, on his punya tithi
Tipu Sultan (20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799) was the sultan of the kingdom of Mysore. Also known as Tipu Saheb, Fateh Ali Tipu or Tiger of Mysore.
He was born on 20 November 1750, Bangalore, Karnataka. His father Hyder Ali was a military officer at the Mysore kingdom. By 1761, He became the most powerful ruler in Mysore. Tipu learnt several languages like Hindustani, Arabic, and Kannada, and was instructed on Military tactics by a French officer. In 1766, at the age of 16, He took part in the First Mysore War against the Britisher. He was his father’s right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India. In 1767, He commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic.
He fought against the Marathas on several occasions between 1775 and 1779. In 1780, during the second Mysore War, he defeated Col. John Brathwaite on the banks of the Kollidam River. In 1782, his father died due to cancer, and Tipu succeeded his father and became the sultan of Mysore. In 1784, the Second Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore.
The third Mysore War fought between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company, allied with the Kingdom of Travancore, the Maratha Empire, and the Nizam of Hyderabad. The East India Company made a treaty with the Peshwa and the Nizam against Tipu Sultan.
In 1792, the campaign was a failure for Tipu. The allied army was well-supplied, and Tipu was unable to prevent the junction of forces from Bangalore and Mumbai before Srirangapatna, he was forced to sign a treaty, giving away half his territory, and his two minor sons were held captive till he paid a hefty ransom.
In 1794, with the support of French officers, he allegedly helped found the Jacobin Club of Mysore for ‘framing laws comfortable with the laws of the Republic.
In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt. His plan was to use Egypt as a base to help Tipu and drive out the British from India. Napoleon was unsuccessful in this strategy, losing the Siege of Acre in 1799 and at the Battle of Abukir in 1801.
In 1799, in the fourth-Mysore war led by Richard Wellesley, this was the end of Tipu’s reign. Britishers showed their total domination against tipu soldiers.
He introduced some administrative innovations during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, and a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry.
He was killed on 4 May 1799 at Srirangapatna, Karnataka.
Some interesting facts about Tipu Sultan
His sword was quite heavy. Based on various sources available in history, the weight of the tipu sultan sword was 7 kg 400 grams. This sword was however taken away by Britishers when they won over Tipu Sultan back in 1799 signifying their victory.
On the 4th of May 1799, the legendary Indian ruler Tipu Sultan was killed, fighting the East India Company Army. His personal possessions and rich library were looted. His four words are on permanent display in two renowned Museums in London.
The story after Tipu Sultan was killed in 1799. “After Tipu was killed by the British in Mysore, his 12 sons, and relatives, a group of 300 people, were sent to Kolkata, so as to prevent the family from becoming a rallying point of revolt against British rule.