Walter Gilbert (born 21 March 1932) is an American biochemist and molecular biologist. In 1980, Gilbert was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Life and Career
He was born on 21 March 1932 in Boston, Massachusetts, United States. He received his undergraduate degree in Chemistry and Physics from Harvard University in 1953. He then went on to pursue his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Cambridge in England, which he completed in 1957. His Ph.D. thesis focused on the study of the structure of proteins using X-ray crystallography.
After completing his Ph.D., Gilbert went on to conduct postdoctoral research in molecular biology at the University of Geneva in Switzerland.
In the early 1970s, Gilbert and his colleagues developed a method for determining the sequence of nucleotides in DNA, which has had a profound impact on many areas of biology, including genetics, biotechnology, and medicine.
His method, called the “Maxam-Gilbert sequencing method,” involves breaking the DNA molecule into fragments, labeling them with a radioactive or fluorescent marker, and then sequencing the fragments using chemical reactions. This method was one of the first techniques for DNA sequencing and was widely used until the development of newer, faster, and more accurate methods such as Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing.
He has also made significant contributions to the study of gene expression and regulation. In the 1960s, he and his colleagues discovered messenger RNA (mRNA), which is responsible for carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where it is used to synthesize proteins. Gilbert also studied the regulation of gene expression, particularly in the context of the lac operon in bacteria.
He has held various academic positions at prestigious institutions such as Harvard University, Rockefeller University, and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory.
Gilbert has also served as a mentor to numerous graduate students and postdoctoral researchers, many of whom have gone on to have successful careers in the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology.
In addition to his scientific work, Gilbert is also known for his political activism. He has been involved in various social and environmental causes, including advocating for nuclear disarmament and opposing the use of genetically modified crops.
Award and Legacy
In 1980, Gilbert was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with fellow scientist Frederick Sanger, for their work on developing methods for determining the sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Overall, Gilbert’s contributions to the field of molecular biology have been immense, and he is considered one of the pioneers of the field. His work has had a profound impact on many areas of biology and has paved the way for numerous advances in biotechnology, medicine, and genetics.Tags: 21 March, 21 March 1932, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Walter Gilbert